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Information about Uzbekistan:
Short review of Tashkent
Sights of Tashkent
Short review of Samarkand
Sights of Samarkand
Short review of Bukhara
Historical Background of Bukhara
Sights of Bukhara
Short review of Khiva
Sights of Khiva
Ferghana Valley
Short review
Historical Background
Outstanding people of Ferghana
Short review of Kokand
Short review of Margilan
Short review of Kuva
Short review of Kokand
Outstanding people of Kokand
Short review of Namangan
Architecture and monuments Namangan
Outstanding people of Namangan
Ancient settlement of Akhsikent
Short review of Chust
Architecture and monuments of Andijan
Short review of Ancient settlement of Akhsikent
Short review of Ancient settlement of Akhsikent
Short review of Ancient settlement of Akhsikent
Short review of Ancient settlement of Akhsikent
Ancient Khorezm
Fortress Toprak-Kala (2-3 cc.), (4-6 cc.)
Fortress Ayaz-Kala (4-2 cc. BC)
Koy-Kyrylgan Kala, fortress and temple
Fortress of Kyrk-Kyz Kala (1-2 cc., 12-13 cc. A.D.)
Ancient civilization of thousand fortresses
Lost Khorezm
Site of ancient settlement Mizdahkan
Nuratau-Kyzylkum Biosphere Reserve
Natural environment
Ecological and ethnographic tourism
People and social environment
Rules of Ecotourism
Wedding traditions in Bukhara
Wedding traditions in Samarkand

site of ancient settlement Mizdahkan

Mizdahkan (site of ancient settlement Mizdahkan) is located near the town Khodjeyli, Karakalpakstan. Consists of: fortress Gyaur-kala (about 20 ha, height 18-20 m), founded in 9th century on the place of ancient settlement of 4 century BC - 8 century AD.

Two citadels are situated on its territory: ancient citadel (inhabited during 9-11 centuries) and later citadel (the end of 11 century - the beginning of 12 century). In the beginning of 13 century the life in the fortress is terminated. Nearby there are the necropolis (60 hectares) and the ruins of the Golden Horde city - Antakiya (2nd half of 13-14 century (80 hectares).

Studied: stratigraphy of the fortress, fortification of Gyaur-Kala, the upper horizon of later Citadel (a large courtyard surrounded by ceremonial, residential and business buildings with murals and carvings on the clay); burial places (the end of 8-14 centuries and 16-17 centuries); architectural monuments in the necropolis: mausoleums of Caliph Erejep (12 c.), Muzlum-khan-sulu (end of 13 c. - the beginning of 14 century), Shamun-Nabi (19 c.).

On the territory of the Golden Horde city there are studied the craft-residential neighborhoods and complexes of household ceramics.

Mausoleum Muzlum-khan-sulu (the end of 13 century - the beginning of 14 century)

An extraordinary on the composition and decorative appearance semi-underground mausoleum Muzlum Khan-sulu (the end of 13 - the beginning of 14 centuries) is situated in the northern part of the necropolis of the ancient Mizdahkan.

The exact time of construction and ownership of the mausoleum is not ascertained. According to local legend, initially it was a palace of the khan's daughter Muzlum-sulu (Beautiful martyr). When the city was occupied by "infidels", their leader fell in love with a girl, who returned his love. The enraged father killed Muzlum-sulu, she was buried in her own palace, which was turned into a mausoleum.

The building is constructed in a specially dug pit, only the upper part of the walls, the dome and the arch of the entrance tower above the ground. Asymmetrical in terms the mausoleum with many rooms comprises a cross-shaped in terms of the main hall, adjacent to it a small hall, several small rooms, a long corridor with a staircase and a small lobby. Corridor and walls of the hall carpeted with pair of bricks, tinted by yellow pigment, arranged in a checkerboard pattern with inlays of carved turquoise tiles, having about thirty variations of elegant ornament. The floor of a big hall is paved with brick parquet with mosaic square in the center, composed of turquoise and white hexagonal triangular tiles.

The hall is covered by octagonal dome, resting on the walls and angled three-tiered stalactites. The latter are made of terracotta tiles with embossed stylized plant images, covered with turquoise glaze. On the edge of the dome there were placed window openings covered with ganch grates - pandjara, in cells of which there were inserted thin glass. The entire inner surface of the dome was faced with large turquoise stones. The small hall was made in the same style, but more artless than others. Small dark rooms, covered with arches "Balkhi", devoid of decoration.

In the niches of the central hall two tombstones are settled, their polychrome incrustation differs from the decoration of the mausoleum. Here on the blue background there is a stamped floral ornament, combining blue, white and black color with gilding. Epitaphs contain philosophical and meditative poems without names and dates. They performed in handwriting "naskh" and covered with white glaze.

Outside, household and residential buildings, where the pilgrims stayed, adjoined to the walls of the mausoleum. It is assumed that the premises of the mausoleum was a place of worship, genetically related to the pre-Islamic beliefs of the population Mizdahkan.

By: Historian and archaeologist Elizabeth Nekrasova.