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Information about Uzbekistan:
Short review of Tashkent
Sights of Tashkent
Short review of Samarkand
Sights of Samarkand
Short review of Bukhara
Historical Background of Bukhara
Sights of Bukhara
Short review of Khiva
Sights of Khiva
Ferghana Valley
Short review
Historical Background
Outstanding people of Ferghana
Short review of Kokand
Short review of Margilan
Short review of Kuva
Short review of Kokand
Outstanding people of Kokand
Short review of Namangan
Architecture and monuments Namangan
Outstanding people of Namangan
Ancient settlement of Akhsikent
Short review of Chust
Architecture and monuments of Andijan
Short review of Ancient settlement of Akhsikent
Short review of Ancient settlement of Akhsikent
Short review of Ancient settlement of Akhsikent
Short review of Ancient settlement of Akhsikent
Ancient Khorezm
Fortress Toprak-Kala (2-3 cc.), (4-6 cc.)
Fortress Ayaz-Kala (4-2 cc. BC)
Koy-Kyrylgan Kala, fortress and temple
Fortress of Kyrk-Kyz Kala (1-2 cc., 12-13 cc. A.D.)
Ancient civilization of thousand fortresses
Lost Khorezm
Site of ancient settlement Mizdahkan
Nuratau-Kyzylkum Biosphere Reserve
Natural environment
Ecological and ethnographic tourism
People and social environment
Rules of Ecotourism
Wedding traditions in Bukhara
Wedding traditions in Samarkand

Sights and architectural monuments of Khiva


Dishan-kala means "outside city", "outside fortress". After another raid in Khorasan 20 thousands of southerners had been forcibly resettled in Khorezm, in its capital city - Khiva. As a result of it, in 1842 under the leadership of Mohammed Yaqub Mekhtar, the Minister of State, there were built 6 km length powerful city-wall with ten gates around Khiva within 30 days. The city-boundaries enveloped the suburban palaces of Rafanik and Nurullabay Khans too.

Since then, a large ring of the city became known as "Dishan-kala". In honor of urban transformations there were composed laudatory odes at that time. Historian Agakhi defines the time of building of fortifications with words "Fortification is neatly constructed" ( "Khisori khush bino"), that in digital form shows 1258 hijra year (1842).





Ichan-Kala literally means "inner fortress". This name was confirmed after the emergence of outer wall of the city, which fenced Dishan-kala (i.e."outside fortress"). In this case the word "kala" - " fortress" should be understood as "the earliest city Khiva".

Ichan-Kala had been in line with the territory of Khiva city till XVIII century. The fortress oriented to the cardinal points with some deviation in azimuth of about 25 °, extends from north to south (650h400 m) and occupies 26 hectares of territory. Surrounded by the wall with length of more than 2200 m. The height of the walls of -7-8 m, thickness at the internal level land -5-6 pm.

At the axes of the fortress are located architectural structures - gates. North Gate - Bagcha-darvaza go to Urgench road, east one - Palvan-darvaza lead to the direction of the Amu Darya and Khazarasp, behind the Southern gate - Tash darvaza, beyond a narrow strip of oasis sands of the Karakum Desert begins, Western gate - Ata-darvaza is located near the Kukhna-Ark.

Because of its breakdown rate Ata-Darvaza were demolished in 1920. According to reconstruction plan of the State Architectural Reserve Ichan-Kala in 1975 the gate structure restored to its previous form.

The fortress wall with many retaining strong semi-circular towers and a continuous band of lancet galleries with loopholes and battlements gave the city form an impregnable stronghold.

Restorers are in front of difficult work to support, improve and restore the adobe walls of the fortress as a unique monument of the late fortification architecture. At the walls of the fortress from the outside are lines of graves of different time: Due to the proximity of groundwater of Khiva people had tried to bury deads on high lands.

Inside Ichan-Kala there are preserved the unique monuments of monumental and religious, civic architecture, various residential formations. All of them are under state protection.


Kukhna Ark is an ancient citadel. From great size of cultural stratifications we can conclude that the territory, occupied by the fortress (about 1 ha), had been settled since olden times. Perhaps, this was the original building, which served as the beginning of foundation of the city. According to Abulgazikhan, in the 90's of XVI century, in the citadel of Khiva there was not ark. We also know that under Arangkhan (1686-1688) on this place there was built a new kurinishhana - reception-room.

Madrasah of Mukhammad Aminkhan

The Madrasah of Mukhammad Aminkhan (1851—1855) is situated to the south from Kukhna-Ark, near the city gate - Ata-darvaza. Madrasah in size and scale is the largest theological school, not only in Khorezm, but throughout Central Asia.

According to pious endowment document huge amounts were allocated for the maintenance of clergymen - two Mutawalli, five Akhunds, an imam and two servants, barber and 260 students.

Madrasah had 125 cells-hujras, located in two floors around a courtyard, several classrooms, halls, a mosque and offices. Each hujra of first floor had a storage room, hujra of the second floor had balconies.

Madrasah was built in the period, when building work was on the rise in Khiva. Especially masters in the art of ornamental majolica reached best perfection at that time.

Among the craftsmen-builders there was continued a kind of competition for a better monumental buildings. In the guise of Muhammad Aminkhan Madrasah embodied achievements of the era, the ideals of beauty and perfection, hatched by popular architects.

The magnificent portal, two-story arched wings flanked by corner towers-guldasta, rich majolica cladding, particularly intense in the central part, and the unfinished blue minaret Kalta-minar - all this represents a majestic monumental building.

On the portal of the Muhammad Aminkhan Madrasah a laudatory ode states that "this beautiful building will always stand on the gladness of future generations ..."

Majestic madrasah and the minaret now, like other monuments of Khiva, are under state protection and will be carefully preserved as the handiwork of folk architects, as a vivid manifestation of the creative genius of the people. At present the building thoroughly reconstructed and improved.

The court chronicle testifies: Muhammad Aminkhan decided to immortalize his name by unprecedented building. "The words of the king are the king of words." The best project was selected for construction. High Assembly decided to build all the buildings on the basis of the compulsory care of all the people of the state. Everyone must contribute in this noble cause.

For more than two years people had been working for the pleasure of the governor without getting payment for their work. Everything is abandoned: family and farm. People began to die of starvation. Complaining of forced people turns into open protest. They demand payment for work, food for themselves and forage for pack animals. Cases of insubordination became more frequent. A revolt threatened. For this wilfulness a leader of the poor Matyakub from Shavat was publicly punished ...

At the same time Khan laid the foundation stone of the minaret, now known as Kalta Minar. A chronicler considered it was immaterial to tell about one detail. Then, in late autumn, by the order of the ruler Matyakub son of Rajab was wrapped in a wet skin and laid alive in the foundation of the minaret. From above there was put a plate with a historical inscription. In so ominousway the freethinker from the local people was butchered.

Madrasah of Muhammad-Rakhimkhan

Madrasah of Muhammad Rahimkhan (1871) is located to the east of the Kukhna-Ark. Muhammad Rahimkhan II (1847-1910) is known among the people under the pen name Firuz. As a champion of literature and art the poet Firuz first introduced lithographic edition books (1874) in Khiva. On his initiative a number of poetry anthologies were created. Construction of a large madrasah with 76 hujra was also a consequence of his educational intentions.

Madrasah consists of two yards: the outer one - one-storey cell-hujra, further in - the two-storey high portal, the main facade of the madrasah, inside there is the main yard with arched row of hujras. Madrasah had an audience - darshona, winter and summer mosque and library. Throughout the guise of madrasah is felt majesty of architectural forms, the desire to create comfortable and convenient environment for its inhabitants.

The wall of madrasah are witnesses of many literary evenings - mushoira, where poets Firuz, Kamil Khorezmi, Tabibi read their poems. Firuz was a founder of suburban park - Gazabag palace. During his reign a few small madrasas and mosques were built.

The mausoleum of Said Alauddin

The mausoleum of Said Alauddin is one of the earliest monuments of the city, which has reached us in a rather distorted and reconstructed shape. The fact, that the mausoleum was half buried in the cultural layers, indicates the antiquity of the monument. However, the original appearance of the mausoleum and the time of its construction has remained hypothetical.

Judging by the inscription on one of the headstones, Said Alauddin died in 702 h.y (in 1303). The mausoleum over the tomb of the sheikh could appear only in the second half of XIV century, as popular rumor links its construction with the name of Amir Kulal, who died in 1380.

Later from the west a square room-ziyaratkhana was added to the mausoleum, and entrance to the complex was established on the north side. All these fundamental restructurings were made by order Allakulikhan (1825-1842).

Later, in connection with the burial of Said Muhammadkhan (1819-1863) near the tomb of the respected sheikh, mutual dahma (elevated ground) with two sagana (tombstones) on it was built for two graves.

Facing of dahma and sagana are made in the best tradition of Khorezm majolica of XIV century. Picture of the majolica is close to the motifs of majolica of Najmiddinov Kubra mausoleum (30's of XIV century), which misled researchers. Actually majolica decoration of dahma and sagana of Said Alauddin mausoleum is made in the 60's of XIX century.

The architecture of the mausoleum is rather ordinary; walls, domes, stepped trumpets - all done in brick and has no facing. During the arevelation there were found the archaeological remains of carved pottery from the original building.

In this way, the current appearance of the mausoleum should be attributed to the period of the new revival architecture of Khorezm, ie the first half of ХIХ century.

Djuma (Friday) Mosque

In the medieval Muslim world, the significance of the city at times was determined by the presence of the main - Friday Mosque in it. Architectural and artistic perfection of the appearance of the building has always been a subject of special concern of the city-rulers. Every city is trying to outdo the others with its monumental mosque.

Among the famous mosques in Central Asia Djuma mosque in Khiva differs from others with its traditionalism, even archaism of its planning and spatial structure. It preserved the cathedral mosques' features of thousand years' prescription. This is a multi-column, covered with flat roof, a huge rectangular hall (45x55 m), surrounded by a massive blank wall with three entrance doors.

In the middle of the south wall there is a mihrab niche - a place to indicate the direction of the worship of the congregation. Semi-darkness reigned in the hall, because a few hatches - slots on the roof are not sufficient to illumine a large space.

Main artistic value of the mosque, of course, are carved wooden columns (over 200), varying in size and by its architectural form of artistic decoration and time of manufacture.
According to widespread opinion, the heterogeneity of the columns resulted from the use of materials from demolished buildings.

Some columns of the earliest time probably were brought from the ancient capital of Khorezm - Kyata, which destroyed by the raging waves of the Amu Darya. Perhaps there was something else: according to the folk tradition, the creation of religious buildings was pious deed, and every believer considered an honor to do something honorable for the construction of the mosque.

Each contributed his mite: one proposed his labor, the other one brought the building material, the wealthy one could afford the manufacture and installation of carved wooden columns on his own expense. Over the centuries, many columns, due to natural causes, became worthless. They are also gradually replaced by others.Thus, in the variety of columns mosque there are reflected the separate stages of the building's existence.

Earlier columns of the mosque, according to the nature and style of the inscriptions, ornaments, belong to the X-XIV centuries. The architectural design of these columns are especially interesting: the prevalent type of columns of Old Khorezm architecture is brightly expressed on them. Every detail is artistically conceived, and whole ornamental decoration gives an estimate of the ancient architects' high skill.

The second group of columns are made as flat relief. At one of the columns there is its date 1316 h.y (1510).

Unique columns of Djuma Mosque are in need of a thorough and careful care. Experts have already started work on cleaning and protecting them against wood pests, and to strengthen and restore woodcarving where it is possible.

Shergazikhan Madrasah

Shergazikhan Madrasah (1719-1726) is the oldest and best known among the remaining schools in Khiva. Well-known poets and scholars educated in its walls.

Therefore the madrasah became known among people as "Maskan-i fazilan", ie "Abode of the educated". A talented Uzbek poet Pahlavankuli Ravnak (born in 1725) also educated in the madrasah. Makhtumkuli (1733-1793), a classic of Turkmen poetry, lived and studied here.The words of sincere gratitude sounded in the poems of the poet, devoted to the completion of Shergazi madrasah:

"Three years that any day you shared with me the salt,
I'm sorry, I'm going, wonderful Shergazi!
You're my refuge was in the winter and spring --
I'm sorry, I'm going, wonderful Shergazi!
I will live and distinguish the enemy and the friend,
The truth is now my holy ally;
A golden book was open here for me.
I'm sorry, I'm going, wonderful Shergazi!"

The history of building madrasah is still alive in people's memory. According to legend, the building was erected by slaves. Khan had promised them freedom after copleting the construction. However, the time of release was deliberately delayed.

Wrath of the slaves had no mercy: during one of his visits to the construction sites Khan was beheaded. It is no coincidence that the poet and historian Munis defined the date of the madrasah's completion with words "Alas, save from slaves!" ( "Dod, az gulomon!") (1139 hijra year (1726)).

Despite the significant repairs in the late ХIХ century, the madrasah as a whole was damaged and abandoned before the revolution.

Only under the Soviet government laborious work of restorers brought it back to life - the monument was constructively enhanced, the basic forms of it were restored, but from its former splendor and wealth remained only a few traces.

The main facade of the madrasah directs too the complex of Pahlavan Mahmud. Descend down the stairs emphasizes that the madrasah was built much earlier than the surrounding buildings.

The architectural composition of the entire building approximately repeats prevalent traditional type of madrasah with a two-storied main facade with a high portal on the middle and one-story buildings around a square courtyard. There are only 55 hujra here. On the portal the inscription of the historical character is preserved, which announces Pious Endowment conditions of the madrasah's maintenance.

Architectural complex of Pahlavan Makhmud

A group of memorial structures, emerged at a small secular cemetery, adjoined to the backside of Djuma Mosque. Among them there is an architectural complex, the name of which is associated with the name of the poet-philosopher, a fighter, master of sewing coats - Pahlavan Makhmud (1247-1326).

According to legend, the poet is buried in his own home-workshop. The remains of the original buildings of brick raw are preserved in the thick of late superstructures. The current complex arose much later.


Minaret of Islamkhoja

Minaret of Islamkhoja was built in 1908. The entire complex is completed in 1910.

The constructor of the complex - Vizier Islamkhoja - was an educated and progressive-minded leader. On his initiative, in Khiva there were built cotton factory, hospital, pharmacy, post and telegraph office.

On the funds of Islamkhoja the first secular school of European type was built in the Khanate. Mathematics, physics, chemistry, natural and humanitarian disciplines were taught in the school.

However, Islamkhoja's progressive aspirations were thwarted insidious conspiracy which ended with his assassination. >The construction of madrasah and minaret were fulfilled by master Hudaybergankhoja with the assistance of master Eshmuhammed and master Bolta.

Ak-Mosque (White Mosque)

Ak-Mosque (1938-1842) represents a typical example of quarterly mosques, usually constructed to serve the population of a small "microdistrict" known as Mahallah or Guzar.

The central domed premise is surrounded on three sides by high multicolumn ayvans (open verandah). In the depths of the southern walls of khanaka and ayvans the mihrab niches are located.

A special sight of the mosque are wooden columns - slender trunks, patterned capitols, bases with delicate carvings. The carved doors, on which the names of the masters Nurmuhammad and Kalandar are inscribed, are also of great interest.

Name Ak-Mosque ( "White Mosque") carries a hint not only to stucco of the building walls, but to its primacy among the small quater mosques. Perhaps, this name is left from old mosque, built under Anushakhan, remains of which are preserved under the walls of the new building.

Baths of Anushakhan

Hammams - baths of eastern city - have deep historical traditions of its technology, spatial and planning construction. Among them are the baths in Khiva, built under Abulgazikhan in 1657.

These are the earliest examples of civil architecture of such purpose, and therefore it is of particular importance for the history of architecture of Khiva.

The monument is known among the people as "baths of Anushakhan". All premises in it are deepened into the ground, only domes are visible from the outside. This was made for supplying thermal protection of the walls.

Heating of the premises was carried out through the flues, laid under the floor. Around the central hall are situated smaller rooms, each of them had some functional purpose. The water for the needs of bath was taken from the well, located near the boiler room.

Architectural monument at Palvan-darvaza

Eastern gate of Ichan-Kala significantly differs from the other gates of Khiva with its large size of the architectural form. It is no coincidence people called them "The Great Gate" - "Palvan-Darvaza". Over the gate there was preserved marble slab with a historical inscription, where the year of construction and a city of Khiva are lettered (Shahri Heyvak -1221 h.y (1806).

Undoubtedly, this is the construction year of initial gate, located along a line of the city wall. Upon completion in 1835, of monumental Allakulikhan Madrasah, to the south from it, a six-domic covered gallery - a market passage - adjoined to it, in that way the beginning of the Gate Palvan-Darvaza was moved forward. The present gate belongs to the late 30's of XIX century.

In the area of Palvan-Darvaza, under Allakulikhan, major urbanistic transformation were made: there were built a madrasah with 99 hujras, a caravanserai and tim. The construction of Tash-hauli Palace with complex layout and multiyard composition was completed at that time.

Caravanserai of Allakulikhan

Caravanserai of Allakulikhan by its architecture is very close to the composition of a typical madrasah. However, in it the central passage is directly connected with a yard. Around the yard hujras are located in two floors : lower one were for storage of goods, upper one were for living. Before caravanserai, along the facade there is a covered market - Tim. Thus, at one point there were concentrated trading, warehousing and hotel for the merchants.

Tim and caravanserai were one of the liveliest places in the neighborhood of the city market.

Madrasah of Allakulikhan

Madrasah of Allakulikhan (1834-1835) was one of the largest theological schools in Khiva. It is located in the space between Tim and the eastern gate, the main facade faces the yard of partially demolished mosque of Hodjamberdibiy (1688). As a result of the intrusion of the new madrasah into the existing building the passage-way to the portal of the madrasah divided the mosque in two, for which the people have nicknamed it "hurdjum", ie "saddlebag".

Madrasah of Allakulikhan can be attributed to the best achievements of late medieval architecture of Khorezm. Extensive and slender in proportion monumental building is created in traditional forms and compositions. Majolica decoration of the portal and the lateral wings are elegant and strict at the same time.

Majolica ornamental facing of the portal and arched niche reaches the utmost saturation. The portal preserved the initial shape, which is important to establish the architectural form of traditional portals of Khiva.

At present time Museum of History of Medicine by name of Abu Ali Ibn Sina is situated in the building of Allakulikhan madrasah.

Khorezm school of architecture was able to create an original and holistic creative direction.

Almost every architectural form - whether it be a small detail or ornament, the residential cell, the urban or rural house, especially large architectural objects - imbued with the same artistic style, is typical for handwriting of Khorezm masters of XVIII-XIX centuries.

Khiva, the capital of Kungrad dynasty, grew beyond recognition in the early nineteenth century. In a relatively short period in Ichan-kala there were made significant reconstructive work, was built a palace complex Tash Hauli. In place of ramshackle buildings there were built new buildings of palace and religious nature, forming expressive architectural ensembles. The massive construction was begun in the former suburbs.

The appearance of Khiva gives a visual representation of the Central Asian feudal city - a ring of solid walls, flat roofs, the silhouettes of hihg ayvans, dome-portal arrangement, tall minarets in the narrow circle of buildings.

City-planning art of Khiva architects was reflected in arrangement of urban arteries - the streets, quater points, the solution of artistic and aesthetic objectives of individual architectural sites.

Although the planning of residential quarters of the city has no clear scheme, there are certain organizing principles derived from the features of placing guzar (microdistrict) mosque, which serves the center of a small microdistrict.

In forming of elat-quaters, of great importance were the structure of the house with a yard, the existence of separate approaches to each house, which resulted in appearing narrow streets, alleys, dead ends. Finally, the predominance of south orientation of the residential premises and disclosed to the north high aywan has a significant influence on the planning basis, and therefore, on a general view of the city.

Social structure of society, household needs, folk traditions, local climatic conditions are reflected in the structure of urban and rural. The use of timber framing with clay fillings is typical for the urban residential houses.

Residential complex usually consists of a courtyard surrounded by rooms and ayvans. Most houses have two ayvans oriented to the north - ters ayvan, and to the south - ung ayvan.

Ters ayvan usually rises above the surrounding buildings, thus fulfilling inflow of fresh air into the yard and the adjacent premises. Ayvans - a favorite place of the household, and perhaps therefore all wealth of artistic and decorative decorations is concentrated here: graceful carved columns, the details of the cornice and patterned ceilings, a various carved doors. Occasionally there were inserted decorative painting.

Dwellings are simpler. On some place the decoration from stucco with a modest carvings and paintings could be found here.

The best achievements of residential architecture are reflected in the construction of the palace complexes. Folk architects displayed extraordinary skill in creating the palaces of rulers - Kukhna-ark, Tash-Hauli Palace and the Palace of Asfandiyarkhan.


Tash-hauli (1831—1841) is an outstanding example of late architecture, embodying the characteristic features of Khiva architecture. Tash-hauli (Stone yard) consists of a compound complex of palaces and residences, united in a single organism by a high brick wall.

Outside, the smooth surface of the wall is enlivened by small demi-towers with lanterns. The wall is crowned with teeth. All these is akin to the medieval fortress architecture. First southern half of the palace was erected: the receiving yard - Arz-hauli and a yard of entertainments - Ishrat-hauli. Later a separate family yard - haram - was adjusted to them.

According to its composition first two have much in common: rectangular, slightly elongated from north to south, on its south side there is the main hall with a high ayvan and rooms, located on three sides of yards. Over the rooms, on the second floor there are rooms with ayvans too.

The main ayvans, stretched to a height of two stories, with a traditional column in the middle, are undoubtedly considered the centre of the composition of the yards.The walls of ayvan are completely covered with painted majolica.

The third yard is the largest one and elongated from east to west in the form of rectangle. Around the yard dwelling and household premises in two floors are located. Five "typical" dwelling cells and three corridors are located abreast here. Dwelling cells consist of an assembly unillinear ayvan with living room.

In the interior of the house there is a dark storage room with stairs to the entresol. The construction of the palace was started by Master Tajiddin, who was later followed by the architect Kalandar and Master Abdullah (master on facing).

Now the museum exhibition on the history, culture and decorative arts of Khorezm is displayed in seperate rooms of Tash-hauli.

In the rural architecture of Khorezm most common type of housing is a farmstead (Hauli). It is pertinent to recall the description of such Khiva farmstead, made by A. Kalmykov in the early XIX century.: "... Khiva people do not live in villages, but in farmsteads...

Each house is a small fortress. Walls are slightly splayed and very high. Huge gates built into the wall, as in a fortress. Near the gate, on the corners and on the facades, at a distance of four or five yards the walls are strengthened with round earthen pillars in the form of buttresses ... The first yard is covered ... it's called "Dalan".

Further there is an open yard with awning on the columns (ayvan). A living room (shed) goes out to this awning. Near this room there is dark pantry for storage of household goods (kaznok). Some small yards are covered ... "

Religious architecture of Khiva are represented by different scale mosques, madrassas and mausoleums. Particularly there are numerous small mosques, evenly placed on the territory of the city.

The architecture of mosques is born as if in a combination of wireframe and dome-arched systems of construction. Many mosques have square rooms - khanaka and adjacent ayvans according to their plan. Khanaka could have dome cover.

Khiva Madrassas are varied. In the context of traditional yard the compositions with the portal entrance one-story, two-story and combined madrassas are varied.

Khiva masters created ornamental compositions, unexcelled in refinements of drawing, particularly in wood carving. The polychromatic majolica was widespread.

Majolica facing of the palace complex of Tash Hauli and the mausoleum of Pahlavan Mahmud was made with great artistic taste. Although in Khorezm monumental painting has not been applied so widely as in Bukhara, Samarkand and Kokand, but the paintings of ceilings and walls differed with their originality of the treatment. Patterned color insertions of paintings fit perfectly into the architecture.

Khorezm builders were far-famed in constructing impressive pakhsa structures. Pakhsa is a cob massive wall and the most accessible and practical construction, known in Khorezm from ancient times. Surface of pakhsa during the leveling process can be polished plastically, creating rows of vertical flutes, seperate ornamental compositions with carving.

Plastic of deep carving imparts pakhsa special monumentality and expressiveness.The best samples of pakhsa can be seen in Khiva farmsteads - Hauli, as well as in the suburban palaces of rulers - Rafanik, Nurullabay, Tazabag.

In each ancient city of Uzbekistan, you can see the original pillars of history - the minarets. Vertical architectural volumes towered majestically and proudly. They are often associated with folk legends about a romantic reflection of thoughts and dreams of perfection and attractive force of the architect's art are found, about the sublimityl of inspired creativity, and sometimes about a deep sadness about the tragic fate of the creators of true beauty.

According to a legend Bukhara architect caught the last stone fromthe top of the Kalyan minaret and from there flew to Khorezm, because he was warned about the guileful plan of cruel ruler who wanted to kill him and thereby forever prevent the possibility of appearing of such minarets anywhere else.

In ancient Urgench people say that their architect had flown from the top just completed minaret, and nobody knew exactly where he went: perhaps he was in Bukhara or Samarkand.

Minarets diverse in architectural form and occupy an important place in the spatial panorama of mass construction, making certain organizing, tectonic, and the artistic beginning and originality in architectural appearance of the eastern city.

Especially Khivan minarets are interesting. All of them, big and small, are surprisingly various in form to a decor. According to tradition at each mosque there was built a minaret. If to consider, that more than 50 mosques hav remained in Khiva, it becomes clear why in the city we so often meet towers-minarets.

Among minarets Minaret of Islamkhoja is the highest one (44,5) and absolute by its architecture. Its diameter at the basis is 9,5 m. It is the last on time (1908) monument of minaterbuilding of such dimension.

The second high minaret at the Djuma-mosque is constructed in the end of ХVIII century. Unlike other minarets of Khiva it is almost not decorated.

Minaret Kalta-minar (1855) which had remained uncompleted at height of 26 m (diameter at the basis 14,2 m), should have become the highest minaret not only Khiva, but also in all Central Asia. Works on construction of Kalta-minar had been stopped because of death of the governor Muhammad-Aminkhan and unwillingness of his successors to continue building.