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Information about Uzbekistan:
   
Tashkent
Short review of Tashkent
Sights of Tashkent
Samarkand
Short review of Samarkand
Sights of Samarkand
Bukhara
Short review of Bukhara
Historical Background of Bukhara
Sights of Bukhara
Khiva
Short review of Khiva
Sights of Khiva
Ferghana Valley
Short review
Historical Background
Outstanding people of Ferghana
Short review of Kokand
Short review of Margilan
Short review of Kuva
Short review of Kokand
Outstanding people of Kokand
Short review of Namangan
Architecture and monuments Namangan
Outstanding people of Namangan
Ancient settlement of Akhsikent
Short review of Chust
Architecture and monuments of Andijan
Short review of Ancient settlement of Akhsikent
Short review of Ancient settlement of Akhsikent
Short review of Ancient settlement of Akhsikent
Short review of Ancient settlement of Akhsikent
Ancient Khorezm
Fortress Toprak-Kala (2-3 cc.), (4-6 cc.)
Fortress Ayaz-Kala (4-2 cc. BC)
Koy-Kyrylgan Kala, fortress and temple
Fortress of Kyrk-Kyz Kala (1-2 cc., 12-13 cc. A.D.)
Ancient civilization of thousand fortresses
Lost Khorezm
Karakalpakstan
Site of ancient settlement Mizdahkan
Nuratau-Kyzylkum Biosphere Reserve
Natural environment
Ecological and ethnographic tourism
Climate
People and social environment
Rules of Ecotourism
Traditions
Wedding traditions in Bukhara
Wedding traditions in Samarkand
 

Historical Background of Bukhara

Bukhara Town was first mentioned by Chinese travelers in the II century BC. In the VI century AD, the city is mentioned in Chinese under the names of Pu Ho, Noo Mi.

The occurrence of city is connected with various legends and stories. One of the legends tells that son of Iranian king Siyavush arrived in Bukhara, married the daughter of the king of Afrasiab and built a fortress Ark.

X century historian Narshakhi, originally from Bukhara writes that no city had so many names as Bukhara. Chinese and Uighurs called the city of Bukhar, which means "the location of idols". The famous Russian scientist Bartold believes that Bukhara originates from the Sanskrit (ancient Indian) Bihar, meaning monastery.

All of these terms are close to the modern name of Bukhara. Archaeological excavations suggest that the city originated no later than I century AD. The antiquity of the city shows its cultural layers, reaching in some places up to 20 meters depth.

Natural resources of Bukhara oasis attracted the attention of neighboring states and foreign invaders. In the VI century BC, the Persian king Cyrus and later Darius captured Bukhara land. The domination of the Persian kings in the territory of Bukhara continued until 330 BC.

In 329 BC after the conquest of Iran by Alexander the Great, the territory of Bukhara (Sogdiana), as well as other areas of Asia, moved into the possession of the Greeks. The population has actively resisted the invaders, whose dominance in Sogdiana continued until the II century BC.

From I century BC Bukhara was part of the Kushan state. It was one of the largest state associations in Central Asia. It is believed that the center was in the area of modern Kata-Kurgan (80 km from Samarkand).

In the V century BC Bukhara became part of the state of Ephtalites, whose capital was the city of Paikend, 40 km from Bukhara.

In the VII century, on historical arena were the Arabs, who in a short time took possession of Iran, Palestine, Egypt and other countries. In 709, the Arabs after a bloody assault took Bukhara. Bukhara, before the Arab conquest, was a major commercial and cultural center of Central Asia. It had trade links with Iran, India, China and other countries. Religion of Islam was forcibly entered by Arabs.

Arab domination led to popular uprisings. One of the largest uprisings of that time under the leadership of Hashim ibn Hakim (Mukanna) was called "The movement of people in white robes". It covered a wide reach and seized the area between the Syr-Darya and Amu-Darya rivers. But despite the courage of rebel the uprising was suppressed. The dominant nobility Arabs frightened by people's movement, began involving the local aristocracy in the governance.

In the IX century, large landowners from Balkh-Samanids became the rulers of Bukhara, named after the founder of the dynasty of Ismail Samani. Samanids formed vast feudal state that covered almost the whole Central Asia with its capital in Bukhara. Crafts, trade and culture strongly developed in Central Asia. The appearance of the city changed dramatically, significantly increased the population. Around Shahristan (suburb) formed new neighborhoods, markets, shops.

The administrative center of the city was Registan Square. There were "Devans" - government agencies. The territory of the city was protected by a large wall which had 11 gates.

In the X century Bukhara became the center of high feudal culture. There worked many scientists, world-famous writers and artists. Such as historian Narshakhi, poets Rudaki Dakiki, physician, mathematician and encyclopedist Abu Ali Ibn Sina (Avicenna), Belazuri historian, Tabari, Ibn Miskaveih and others.

In 999, the territory of modern Bukhara was conquered by the Karakhanids - aliens from Semirechye (historical name of a part of Central Asia). Karakhanids ruled until 1141, after which Bukhara was captured by new nomadic tribes – “Karakitai”s. As a result of severe oppression in 1206, uprising broke out under the leadership of Malik Sanjar.

However, the neighboring states of Khorezm, taking advantage of the existing situation in Bukhara, crushed the rebellion and seized Bukhara independently.

In the beginning of XIII century, the wealth of Bukhara oasis attracted the attention of new conquerors - Mongols. Under the leadership of Genghis Khan, they captured a significant part of Sughd. In 1220, Genghis Khan, thanks to the betrayal of the clergy and military leaders occupied the city of Bukhara.

In the second half of the XIII century Bukhara recovered gradually. Italian traveler Marco Polo, who visited Bukhara at that time, called it – city of huge greatness. Yet people were not able to accept their plight and often rebelled against the Mongols.

Amir Temur, took advantage of the unstable situation in the region and came to power. In 1370 Bukhara became part of the Timurid state. Bukhara lost its political importance, as the capital was changed to the city of Samarkand. With the grandson of Tamerlane - Ulugbek, Bukhara became the cultural center of the feudal world.

In 1506 Bukhara conquered by Sheibanids - new dynasty of nomadic Uzbek tribes. In the early years of the dynasty Samarkand remained as the capital. Since the second half of the XI century, with the reign of Abdulla-Khan (1557-1598) Bukhara became the political center of the state and was called as Bukhara Khanate. During the reign of Sheibanids there was a significant rise in the economy of the Bukhara Khanate. Most of the architectural monuments, which are mainly determined by the appearance of the old city, were built during this period. In the second half of the XVI century, Djuibar sheikhs of the dynasty of Sheibanids played an important role by owning vast lands in the surroundings of Bukhara (Chor-Bakr).

In 1595 Bukhara Khanate ruled by Ashtarkhanids, new dynasty, named after the kings of Astrakhan. By the end of reign of Dynasty (XVII century), Khanate lost its economic and cultural importance. The decline of the economy caused a reduction in the Khanate of construction in the city.

In 1740, the Persian king Nadir marched against Bukhara. Having conquered the Bukhara Khanate, he left in the city his successor - Mohammad Rahim. Who soon declared himself as an emir and founded a new dynasty - Mangyts (1753-1920). This dynasty lasted until the fall of the emirate. The reign of Mangyts brought the most difficult times in the history of Bukhara. It can be seen by significant decline in economy and trading. Decreasing of crafts, science and degradation.

In 60-70 years of XIX century Russian Empire has begun to capture the Emirate of Bukhara. Emirate of Bukhara was not prepared for the war with Russia with lack of fighting force in the army. In 1868 Bukhara troops were defeated in bloody battles at Zerabulak. At the request of the Emir peace pact was signed by which Russia has established a protectorate over Bukhara Emirate.